The influence of peculiar features of the North and the Arctic on formation of scope of research works and the directions of regional policy is shown. The assessment of cold (climatic discomfort, permafrost, etc.), periferieness, high natural and resource potential, ethnicity is directed on the studying of traditional problems of demography, the organization of the relations between corporations and territories, the tax and budgetary providing. The problem of choice of measurement techniques of level of economic and social condition is especially allocated. The attempt to coordinate raw specialization of the northern and the arctic regions with the solution of strategic problems of their sustainable development is made.